Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Prestretching of DE membranes.
  • section S2. Hydrogel and muscle laminate.
  • section S3. The fin laminate, soft body, and steering tail.
  • section S4. Preliminary attempt to fabricate a soft fish by 3D printing.
  • section S5. Measurements of speed, turning radius, and thrust.
  • section S6. The onboard power and control system (Epod).
  • section S7. Von Mises stress contours in FEA simulation.
  • section S8. Water conductivity.
  • section S9. Viscous effect of the DE membranes.
  • fig. S1. The prestretch of the DE membrane.
  • fig. S2. Fabrication of the muscle laminate.
  • fig. S3. Fabrication of the fin laminate.
  • fig. S4. Fabrication of the soft body and steering tail.
  • fig. S5. Buoys and electromagnetic steering tail.
  • fig. S6. Soft fish by 3D printing.
  • fig. S7. Measurement of the speed and turning radius.
  • fig. S8. The Epod.
  • fig. S9. Von Mises stress distribution by FEA.
  • table S1. Speed and turning radius.
  • table S2. Capacitance, thrust, power, and efficiency.
  • table S3. Dimensions and weight of the soft robot fish.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S6

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mp4 format). The swimming of the tethered powered fish.
  • movie S2 (.mp4 format). The flapping and undulatory motions of the fins of an anchored wired fish at various frequencies (1, 3, and 4 Hz).
  • movie S3 (.mp4 format). The swimming and turning of an untethered fish with and without a payload (a video camera).
  • movie S4 (.mp4 format). Video record captured by an onboard camera on a swimming fish.
  • movie S5 (.mp4 format). The swimming of a transparent tethered fish in cold (0.4°C) and hot (74.2°C) water.
  • movie S6 (.mp4 format). The swimming of a transparent tethered fish and partially 3D-printed fish.

Files in this Data Supplement: