Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. Two-dimensional EDAX mapping of lithium-deposited stainless steel substrate with 1 M LiNO3-DMA electrolyte and 10% ionomer additive.
  • fig. S2. XPS results showing the binding energy of Li and O atoms with the control electrolyte (1 M LiNO3-DMA).
  • fig. S3. Nyquist plots of 1 M LiNO3-DMA enriched with 5% (by weight) ionomer additive, showing impedance for different storage times of the battery.
  • fig. S4. Equivalent circuit model to fit the Nyquist plot obtained from impedance spectroscopy measurement comprising bulk resistance, interfacial resistance parallel to a constant phase element, and a solid-state diffusion element.
  • fig. S5. Nyquist plots showing experimental as well as circuit model–fitted results of impedance measurements with symmetric cells for the control electrolyte and ionomer-added batteries after 48 and 56 hours of storage.
  • fig. S6. Stripping and plating of Li versus stainless steel cell after depositing lithium (10 mAh/cm2) onto stainless steel.
  • fig. S7. Size analysis of lithium peroxide particles after discharging a Li-O2 cell with 1 M LiNO3-DMA electrolyte and the ionomer additive at different current densities, as indicated in the box.
  • table S1. Atomic percentage of detected elements on lithium anodes.

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