Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Text
  • Supplementary Materials and Methods
  • section S1. Experimental values for the VBE of the bulk hydrated electron
  • section S2. Description of scattering calculations
  • section S3. Description of experimental setup
  • section S4. Additional eKE distributions
  • section S5. Sensitivity of eKE distributions to scattering parameters
  • section S6. Additional electron binding energy spectra
  • section S7. Probing depth and surface sensitivity
  • section S8. Photoelectron angular distribution
  • table S1. Previously reported values of the VBEs for the bulk hydrated electron.
  • fig. S1. Experimental VBEs by Yamamoto et al. (8).
  • fig. S2. Light intensity distribution in the liquid microjet.
  • fig. S3. Integral scattering cross sections for electrons in water as a function of the eKE as derived by Signorell et al. and Michaud et al. (35, 39).
  • fig. S4. Scheme of the experimental setup.
  • fig. S5. Direct comparison of the experimental and calculated photoelectron kinetic energy distributions from Fig. 2 for all probe energies hν.
  • fig. S6. The influence of scattering on the eKE distributions.
  • fig. S7. Sensitivity of eKE distributions to an increase in the inelastic mean free path of +40%, which corresponds to the upper uncertainty limit of the IMFP (35).
  • fig S8. Sensitivity of eKE distributions to a change in the angular distribution of the inelastic scattering events (section S2).
  • fig. S9. Experimental eBE spectra for the different photon energies between 3.6 eV ≤ hν ≤ 13.6 eV.
  • fig. S10. Uncertainty of the eBE(g) spectrum.
  • fig. S11. Fraction of the total electron intensity that originates from cylindrical shells of various thickness for photon energies 3.6 eV ≤ hν ≤ 13.6 eV and for a photon energy hν = 38.7 eV (red, dashed line) (6).
  • fig. S12. Surface contribution to the eBE spectra for (A) hν = 3.6 eV and (B) hν = 5.8 eV.
  • fig. S13. Calculated angle-dependent liquid jet photoelectron spectra for different ionization laser polarization directions 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° (section S2 and fig. S4) and a photon energy of hν = 4.8 eV (23).
  • fig. S14. Calculated velocity map photoelectron image for hydrated electrons in an anion cluster with ~50 H2O molecules for a genuine anisotropy parameter
    β(g) = 0.6 and a photon energy of hν = 3.1 eV (45).
  • References (47–57)

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