Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section SI. Plating bath and solubility of transition metal oxides.
  • section SII. Mesoporous carbon foam.
  • section SIII. Flexible carbon scaffold.
  • section SIV. Quasi-reference electrode.
  • section SV. Thermodynamic modeling.
  • section SVI. Crystallography of LiCoO2.
  • section SVII. Scanning electron nanobeam diffraction.
  • section SVIII. Flexible battery.
  • section SIX. Electrodeposition of spinel LiMn2O4.
  • section SX. Electroplating of Al-doped lithium cobalt oxide.
  • section SXI. Calculation of energy density of flexible batteries.
  • fig. S1. Schematic illustration of a flexible CNF.
  • fig. S2. High-resolution TEM images of the CNF.
  • fig. S3. High-resolution TEM image and electron diffraction pattern of an electroplated LiCoO2 crystal flake.
  • fig. S4. Crystallographic structures of O3-, O2-, and spinel-phase lithium cobalt oxides and two superstructures with lithium staging and 2 × 2 periods.
  • fig. S5. Illustration of the SEND technique.
  • fig. S6. Cross-sectional SEM image of ~200-μm-thick LiCoO2 electroplated on an Al foil.
  • fig. S7. Charge/discharge voltage profiles of the CNF anode.
  • fig. S8. Charge/discharge curves of a LiCoO2/CNF flexible battery.
  • fig. S9. Optical images of bending tests.
  • fig. S10. Schematic illustrations of the structure difference between traditional and electroplated flexible batteries.
  • fig. S11. SEM images of a LiCoO2/CNF cathode before and after 1000 bending cycles.
  • fig. S12. Materials and electrochemical characterization of the electroplated LiMn2O4/CNF battery.
  • fig. S13. The Gibbs free energy of the formation from the elements for LiMnO2.
  • fig. S14. The Gibbs free energy of LiMnO2.
  • fig. S15. The potential-pH2O diagram of the LiOH-KOH-MnO-H2O melt system.
  • fig. S16. Materials and electrochemical characterization of the electroplated Al-doped LiCoO2.
  • table S1. Thermodynamic data used for the LiOH-KOH-CoO system at 260°C.
  • table S2. Thermodynamic data of the LiOH-KOH-MnO system at 25°C.
  • table S3. Thermodynamic data of the LiOH-KOH-MnO system at 300°C.
  • References (42–82)

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