Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Key components of the AFP.
  • fig. S2. Inconsistent weight support during 20-cm jumping flights.
  • fig. S3. Horizontal takeoff and landing impulses.
  • fig. S4. Body angle correlations and changes during flight.
  • fig. S5. Effect of proto-wingbeat timing on distance and power required for a long jump.
  • fig. S6. Linear approximation for the long-jump range versus wingbeat impulse.
  • fig. S7. Representative force traces of individuals during 75-cm flights.
  • fig. S8. Velocity components during flight.
  • fig. S9. Key parameters used in modeling bird foraging flights.
  • fig. S10. Mechanical energy model results assuming zero elastic storage.
  • table S1. Takeoff and landing velocity data from Fig. 3 (A and B).
    table S2. Mechanical energy model input parameter values and predictions for foraging flight.
  • table S3. Time rate of change of the tau function ( τ ).
  • table S4. Bird antecedent parameters from Dececchi et al. (35) used in the protowing model.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mp4 format). In vivo weight support recording of a Pacific parrotlet during level, 20-cm flight.
  • movie S2 (.avi format). In vivo weight support recording of a Pacific parrotlet during level, 40-cm flight.
  • movie S3 (.mp4 format). In vivo weight support recording of a Pacific parrotlet during level, 75-cm flight.
  • movie S4 (.mp4 format). In vivo weight support recording of a Pacific parrotlet during ascending (+20°), 75-cm flight.
  • movie S5 (.mp4 format). In vivo weight support recording of a Pacific parrotlet during descending (−20°), 75-cm flight.

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