Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Materials
  • Supplementary Methods
  • fig. S1. Raman spectroscopy of an instantly tough-bonded compound of a 6-μm-thick PET and PHEMA hydrogel using a 1:4 ethyl cyanoacrylate/2,2,4-trimethylpentane dispersion.
  • fig. S2. Diffusion of bonding agent into PDMS and VHB.
  • fig. S3. Biaxial stretching of instantly tough-bonded hydrogel.
  • fig. S4. Uniaxial stretching of physically attached hydrogel versus instantly tough-bonded hydrogels.
  • fig. S5. Interfacial toughness measurement of hydrogels bonded to various substrates and varying dispersion compositions.
  • fig. S6. Single-edge notch test of PHEMA and PVA hydrogels.
  • fig. S7. Model of a human lumbar vertebrae.
  • fig. S8. Instant tough bonding of PAAm/alginate hydrogel to PMMA and aluminum and instant loading of the bond with more than 1-kg weight.
  • fig. S9. Reflectance R of PAAm, VHB, and toughly bonded PAAm-VHB sandwich sheets.
  • fig. S10. Transmission and absorption of PHEMA-PET heterostructures.
  • fig. S11. Stretchable battery and self-powered stretchable circuit.
  • fig. S12. Schematic top view and cross section of the stretchable battery in top configuration.
  • fig. S13. Details for the electronic circuit board of the hydrogel electronic unit.
  • fig. S14. Illustrating the stretchability of the complex electronic system.
  • fig. S15. Illustrating the smartphone control of our hydrogel electronic patch.
  • fig. S16. Interfacial toughness and cell viability studies.
  • fig. S17. Heat-activated diffusion of a model drug.
  • Legends for videos S1 to S6
  • References (56, 57)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • video S1 (.mp4 format). Instant healing of conductive hydrogels.
  • video S2 (.mp4 format). Bulk rupture of a tough PAAm/alginate hydrogel undergoing 90° peeling.
  • video S3 (.mp4 format). Assembly of a 3D-printed human lumbar vertebrae model.
  • video S4 (.mp4 format). Instant tough bonding and instant loading of tough PAAm/alginate hydrogel.
  • video S5 (.mp4 format). Visualization of the voltage-controlled focal length change in a soft hydrogel lens.
  • video S6 (.mp4 format). Hydrogel electronic skin.

Download Videos S1 to S6 PDF

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