Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Supplementary Materials and Methods
  • fig. S1. Nitrate (NO3) concentrations in the glass vials during the 30-hour incubation period.
  • fig. S2. Percentage reduction in nitrification rate in AgNP or Ag+ treatments compared to no-silver control during the 30-hour incubation period.
  • fig. S3. Pearson correlation between the dissolved Ag+ concentrations released from AgNPs and the percentage reduction in nitrification rate at the end of the 12-hour exposure period.
  • fig. S4. Percentage effects of PVP coating on nitrification activity and N2O production compared to the control group (incubation time = 12 hours, n = 3).
  • fig. S5. N2O concentrations in the headspace of the glass vials during the 30-hour incubation period.
  • fig. S6. Effects of AgNPs and Ag+ on N2O emission during nitrification in the 30-hour incubation period.
  • fig. S7. Effects of the dissolved Ag+ released from AgNPs on N2O emission during nitrification (incubation time = 12 hours).
  • fig. S8. DO concentration at the end of the incubation period (incubation time = 12 hours).
  • fig. S9. Bioreactor performance.
  • fig. S10. Community compositions of the nitrifying bioreactor during the incubation period and the original sediment samples collected from the intertidal flat of the Yangtze Estuary based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
  • fig. S11. Community compositions of the nitrifying organisms in the no-silver control and the AgNP (500 μg liter−1 of 30 nm AgNPs) treatment at the end of the 12-hour incubation, based on the metatranscriptome sequencing.
  • fig. S12. FC of transcripts encoding the enzymes complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase), complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase), complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), and complex V (F-type ATPase) in the respiratory chain of the nitrifying organisms under 30-nm AgNP (500 μg liter−1) exposure for 12 hours.
  • fig. S13. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of ammonia monooxygenase based on protein sequences.
  • fig. S14. TEM imaging of AgNPs used in this study.
  • table S1. Dissolved Ag+ concentration released from AgNPs after a 12-hour exposure period in the nitrification inhibition experiment.
  • table S2. Sequencing read statistics of the metatranscriptomic libraries.
  • table S3. Expression of genes encoding proteins involved in nitrogen transformation, heavy metal stress response, and oxidative stress release of nitrifying organisms in the no-silver control and 30-nm AgNP (500 μg liter−1) treatment based on qPCR method (incubation time = 12 hours).
  • table S4. Primers and qPCR protocols used in this study.
  • References (75–83)

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