Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Nanoporous AAO membrane mask fabrication
  • Scanning thermo-ionic microscopy
  • Phase-field simulation details and parameters
  • table S1. The coefficients used in phase-field simulations.
  • fig. S1. Schematic diagrams for different 1D topologically polar domain.
  • fig. S2. Schematic procedures for the fabrication and PFM characterization of BFO nanodot array sample.
  • fig. S3. PFM images for the nanodot array after poling by scanning bias voltages of ±8 V.
  • fig. S4. 3D PFM images for a nanodot array.
  • fig. S5. Single-dot PFM images for four typical topologic domains.
  • fig. S6. A comparison of domain structures between an oxygen-deficient BFO film and a less oxygen-deficient film.
  • fig. S7. STIM images of a nanodot array in this work.
  • fig. S8. Surface potential maps and charge distribution states for different center domains.
  • fig. S9. The domain structures for nanodots with a relatively larger lateral size (~300 nm) derived from three different methods.

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