Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. Characterizations of graphite, GO, and RGO.
  • fig. S2. XRD patterns of the Blank cathode treated with hydrazine.
  • fig. S3. Contact angle measurement results of the hydrazine aqueous solution on the GO-coated and Blank cathodes.
  • fig. S4. SEM image of the 10RGO cathode obtained by 10 times layer-by-layer deposition of 1RGO.
  • fig. S5. Rate capability results of the battery with the 10GO cathode (without hydrazine reduction) in comparison with the Blank cathode.
  • fig. S6. Typical charge-discharge curves of ReHAB with the 10RGO cathode at 0.2 C.
  • fig. S7. Capacity loss after 1-day float charge of the cathodes with different thicknesses of the G-SEI (1RGO, 5RGO, and 10RGO) and Blank cathodes (dip-coating GO and in situ reduction to RGO).
  • fig. S8. Capacity loss after 1-day float charge of the 1RGO, 5RGO, 10RGO, and Blank cathodes (directly dip-coating RGO).
  • fig. S9. Rate capability results of the pristine LMO and RGO-coated LMO particles in the cathode.
  • fig. S10. Capacity loss after 1-day float charge and rate capabilities of Blank and 10RGO (thermally reduced) cathodes.
  • fig. S11. The inside and outside of a large-scale battery cell (7 mA·hour) with 9-cm2 cathode surface area for potential applications in the UPS power sources.
  • fig. S12. Capacity loss after 1-day float charge of the 1RGO, 5RGO, 10RGO, and Blank cathodes in the large-scale cell (fig. S10) (mass loading of active materials, 25 to 28 mg cm−2; L-S method to coat GO followed by water vapor reduction).
  • fig. S13. Typical charge-discharge curves of the 10RGO-LMO/AC asymmetrical supercapacitor at different current densities.
  • fig. S14. Cycling stability of the 10RGO-LMO/AC asymmetrical supercapacitor at a current density of 4 A g−1.
  • fig. S15. Relevant equivalent circuit model for EIS data in Fig. 3.
  • fig. S16. Rct of the 10RGO and Blank cathodes as a function of time without repeated cycles.
  • fig. S17. Rs of the 10RGO and Blank cathodes as a function of repeated cycles of charge-discharge.
  • fig. S18. Rs of the 10RGO and Blank cathodes as a function of time without repeated cycles.
  • fig. S19. O1s peaks of the 10RGO cathode after the cycling test on the surface (red) and inside the bulk (blue).
  • fig. S20. Coulombic efficiencies of the 10RGO and Blank samples during 300 cycles at 4 C.
  • fig. S21. In situ XRD patterns of Blank and 10RGO cathode during discharge process (LixMn2O4, 0.11 < x < 1).
  • fig. S22. Contact angle results of the aqueous electrolytes on the Blank (left) and 10RGO (right) cathodes.
  • fig. S23. The cycling properties of the Blank and 10RGO cathodes that are made of inactive silica particles rather than the LMO.
  • fig. S24. Discharge curves of the 10RGO/silica cathode at a current density of 16 mA g−1.
  • fig. S25. Typical CVs of the 10RGO cathode at a scan rate of 0.1 to 0.7 mV s−1.
  • fig. S26. The peak current (ip) in the 10RGO cathode samples (peak 1 in this study) as a function of the square root of the scan rate (v).
  • Calculations of Li+ diffusivity based on EIS data
  • Calculations of Li+ diffusivity based on CV plot
  • Reference (90)

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