Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. Large-scale SEM and TEM images and SAED pattern of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S2. EDX spectrum of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S3. UV-vis absorption spectrum of the dispersion of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets in ethanol.
  • fig. S4. STEM and EDX mapping images of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S5. XPS spectra of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S6. Experimental FT-EXAFS spectrum and the best fits of the as-prepared Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and Cu foil.
  • fig. S7. Three structural models of Cu to simulate their FT-EXAFS using the FEFF 8 program: bulk Cu, two-atomic-layer Cu, and one-atomic-layer Cu.
  • fig. S8. TEM, AFM, XRD, and XPS characterizations of the Cu nanosheets.
  • fig. S9. TEM images of the products obtained with the different heating time at 160°C.
  • fig. S10. XRD patterns of the products obtained with the different heating time at 160°C: 0, 1, 3, 5, and 15 hours.
  • fig. S11. Relative contents of Cu and Ni in the products obtained with different heating time at 160°C.
  • fig. S12. TEM images and XRD patterns of the products obtained at different hydrothermal temperatures.
  • fig. S13. Two possible pathways for the deposition of Cu2+ onto premade Ni(OH)2 nanosheets subsequent deposition with Cu(OH)2 continually grown on Ni(OH)2 (pathway I) and substitution deposition (pathway II) with surface Ni2+ replaced by Cu2+.
  • fig. S14. TEM and AFM images of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets before and after Cu2+ substitution, and HS-LEISS spectra for Cu(OH)2/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S15. TEM, XRD, and EDX characterizations of Cu2O intermediates and Cu nanosheets using β-Ni(OH)2 as the template.
  • fig. S16. TEM images and XRD of the α-Ni(OH)2 and Cu/α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S17. TEM and HR-TEM images and XRD pattern of the Cu nanoparticles synthesized in the absence of Ni.
  • fig. S18. TEM image of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets after being heated at 280°C in N2 for 3 hours.
  • fig. S19. XPS and Auger electron spectra of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets after storing in air at room temperatures for 90 days.
  • fig. S20. Thermal stability of the hybrid Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets at 100°C in air.
  • fig. S21. N2 adsorption isotherm of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets at 77 K.
  • fig. S22. Effect of surface formate modification on the stability of Cu foils against oxidation.
  • fig. S23. Air instability of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets after surface ligand exchange by acetate.
  • fig. S24. TPD-MS profiles of the species released from the acetate-exchanged Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets under the TPD-MS measuring condition.
  • fig. S25. Photograph of the reaction mixture without the addition of HCOONa after being heated at the same conditions as those for the synthesis of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • fig. S26. Electrocatalytic performances of pure Cu nanoparticles and Ni(OH)2 nanosheets in the CO2 reduction.
  • fig. S27. 1H NMR spectra of products after bulk electrolysis at different potentials for 2 hours on the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets modified carbon paper electrode.
  • fig. S28. TEM image and electrocatalytic performance of the Cu nanosheets in CO2 reduction.
  • fig. S29. Loading-dependent chronoamperometric currents at −0.5 V versus RHE.
  • fig. S30. TEM images of the Cu and Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets after electrochemical tests.
  • fig. S31. Room-temperature CO2 adsorption isotherms of the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets, Cu nanosheets obtained from the Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets by etching away Ni(OH)2, Cu nanoparticles made with the same conditions of Cu/Ni(OH)2 except that no Ni was introduced, and Ni(OH)2 nanosheets prepared with the same conditions of Cu/Ni(OH)2 except that no Cu was introduced.
  • fig. S32. Nyquist plots of the four different samples under the potential of −0.5 V (versus RHE).
  • fig. S33. Scheme of the setup for the electrochemical reduction of CO2.
  • table S1. EXAFS parameters of the Cu foil and Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.
  • table S2. The elemental analysis results of two different Cu/Ni(OH)2 nanosheets.

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