Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Supplementary Text
  • fig. S1. Deep-ocean ventilation as the driver of CaCO3 cycles.
  • fig. S2. Pliocene variations in porphyrin and TOC concentrations at Site 882.
  • fig. S3. Oceanic adjustment and the development of a PMOC.
  • fig. S4. Atlantic zonal-mean stream functions.
  • fig. S5. Simulated changes in ocean salinity.
  • fig. S6. Simulated and observed temperature, salinity, and density profiles at Site 882.
  • fig. S7. Simulated precipitation minus evaporation changes.
  • fig. S8. Atmospheric moisture transport and oceanic salinity budget.
  • fig. S9. Simulated surface density change between the preindustrial and Pliocene-like experiments.
  • fig. S10. Simulated January-February-March potential density profiles at the approximate location of Site 882.
  • fig. S11. Vertical velocities across ~800 m.
  • fig. S12. Simulated changes in ocean static stability.
  • fig. S13. Zonal mean Pacific vertical diffusivity (cm2/s).
  • fig. S14. Vertical diffusivity at ~800 m.
  • fig. S15. Change in North Pacific deep-ocean (1000 to 2000 m) currents between the Pliocene and preindustrial control experiments.
  • fig. S16. Variability in the PMOC.
  • fig. S17. Simulated zonal mean meridional heat transport.
  • fig. S18. Simulated surface currents and theoretical wind-driven Sverdrup flow.
  • table S1. List of the salt budget variables.
  • table S2. The contribution of the change in each variable, δζi, to the change in salinity, ΣiΔζi, of the Subarctic and midlatitude regions between the control and Pliocene simulations, as shown in fig. S8B.
  • Reference (64)

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