Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Phylogenetic tree of microbial rhodopsin proteins.
  • fig. S2. Sequence alignment of microbial rhodopsins.
  • fig. S3. Photocycles of the NsXeR in nanodisc (ND, upper row) and liposome (LIP, lower row) preparations (20°C, pH 7.5).
  • fig. S4. Crystal packing of NsXeR.
  • fig. S5. Overall architecture of NsXeR.
  • fig. S6. Comparison of NsXeR structure with structures of other microbial rhodopsins.
  • fig. S7. Details of the NsXeR proton-translocation pathway.
  • fig. S8. Action spectrum of photocurrents in NG108-15 cells expressing NsXeR (black) and NsXeR absorption spectrum (red).
  • fig. S9. NsXeR photocurrents in response to ultrashort light pulses.
  • fig. S10. Light intensity dependence of NsXeR.
  • fig. S11. Variability of spike latency.
  • table S1. Crystallographic data collection and refinement statistics.
  • table S2. List of mutations to NsXeR and their implications on proton pumping.

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