Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Characterization of microscopic spreading behavior of the precursor on liquid diodes
  • section S2. Comparison of liquid pinning behavior on liquid diode and control surfaces
  • section S3. Flow hydraulic resistance analysis
  • section S4. Characterization of macroscopic spreading dynamics on control surfaces
  • section S5. Comparison of liquid self-transportation on various surfaces
  • section S6. Temperature gradient effect on the liquid diode
  • fig. S1. Sample fabrication.
  • fig. S2. Characterization of precursor film and water droplet spreading velocity.
  • fig. S3. Selected snapshots showing the microscopic wetting dynamics on the liquid diode.
  • fig. S4. Representative SEM images showing the liquid pinning rendered by the reentrant structure.
  • fig. S5. Selected snapshots showing the pinning dynamics of water on the liquid diode.
  • fig. S6. Selected snapshots showing the breakdown of pinning on the control surface without the presence of a reentrant feature.
  • fig. S7. Schematic diagrams showing the flow pathways on the control surface without the presence of a cavity.
  • fig. S8. Effects of structural topography on the flow resistance parameter R′.
  • fig. S9. Effects of structural topography on the rectification coefficient k.
  • fig. S10. SEM characterization of control surfaces.
  • fig. S11. Spreading dynamics on the control surfaces.
  • fig. S12. Comparison of transport performances among different surfaces.
  • fig. S13. Effect of temperature gradient on the directional transport.
  • table S1. Structural parameters of the liquid diode and control surfaces.
  • table S2. Structural parameters of liquid diodes with varying sizes in cavity length.
  • table S3. Structural parameters of liquid diodes with varying sizes in cavity width.
  • table S4. Physical and chemical properties of tested liquids.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S6

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.avi fomat). Unidirectional spreading of a single water droplet.
  • movie S2 (.avi fomat). Microscopic wetting dynamics on the liquid diode.
  • movie S3 (.avi fomat). Corner flow in the divergent channel.
  • movie S4 (.avi fomat). Hydraulic jump mechanism on the liquid diode.
  • movie S5 (.avi fomat). Directed water transportation on circular surface.
  • movie S6 (.avi fomat). Directed water transportation on spiral surface.

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