Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. ADF observation of different compositions (C8mimCl-Au, C2mimTFSI-I, and C8mimCl-I)
  • section S2. Multislice image simulation for thickness, defocus, and composition dependence
  • section S3. Splitting spot analysis
  • section S4. Confirmation of the isotropic displacement
  • section S5. Diffusion coefficient of gold ions in the liquid phase
  • section S6. Electron-beam effects
  • fig. S1. Shape change of the liquid films by tilting the sample.
  • fig. S2. Direct imaging of gold and iodine ions in liquids.
  • fig. S3. Schematic structures for the ADF simulations.
  • fig. S4. Dependence of the ADF images of the gold atoms on the thickness of the liquid phase.
  • fig. S5. Dependence of the ADF images of the gold and iodine atoms on the defocus.
  • fig. S6. Dependence of the ADF images on the liquid composition.
  • fig. S7. Imaging time of each bright spot.
  • fig. S8. Splitting spot analysis.
  • fig. S9. Confirmation of the isotropic displacement of the gold ions.
  • fig. S10. Electron beam effect: Steady heat conduction.
  • fig. S11. Electron beam effect: Nonsteady heat conduction.
  • fig. S12. Relationships between the parameters involved in elastic scattering.
  • fig. S13. Dose rate density dependence of diffusion coefficient of gold ions in a film.
  • table S1. Displacement cross sections for atomic species with different displacement energies (Ed) at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV.
  • References (22–38)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.avi format). Motion of gold monatomic ions in C2mimTFSI.

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