Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Additional information for cathode material design, preparation, and characterizations.
  • fig. S2. Raman spectra, XRD patterns, and XPS spectra of GF-HC, GF-p, GF-Hp, and expanded graphite.
  • fig. S3. HRTEM images of expanded graphite and GF-HC.
  • fig. S4. SEM images of GF-HC, GF-p, and GF-Hp.
  • fig. S5. Orientation demonstration of GF-HC and graphene foam with statistic of cracks in different GF cathodes.
  • fig. S6. Porosity characteristics of GFs.
  • fig. S7. Permeability test of ionic liquid electrolyte on GF-HC and GF-Hp in a glove box.
  • fig. S8. Dynamic contact angle test of DMF droplet on different GF cathodes.
  • fig. S9. Mechanical properties of GF.
  • fig. S10. CV and cutoff voltage optimization of the GF-HC cathode.
  • fig. S11. Cycling performances of GF-HC and GF-p.
  • fig. S12. EIS and CV spectra of GF-HC, GF-p, GF-Hp, and graphite.
  • fig. S13. Element mapping of the charged GF-HC cathode.
  • fig. S14. Electrochemical performance of the GF-HC cathode at low rates.
  • fig. S15. Charge/discharge curves of the GF-HC cathode at different temperatures.
  • fig. S16. Charge/discharge curves of the GF-HC cathode and ionic conductivity of EMImAlxCly ionic liquid electrolyte at low temperature.
  • fig. S17. Comparison of electrochemical performances of GF-HC and GF-p cathodes at low temperature.
  • fig. S18. Photograph of flexible Al-GB.
  • fig. S19. EIS spectra of flexible Al-GB soft pack cell after different bending cycles.
  • fig. S20. Additional information on coin cell fabrication, demonstration for the absence of side reaction, and the electrochemical performance based on mass loading.
  • fig. S21. Galvanostatic cycling of the GF-HC cathode with Et3NHAlxCly electrolyte.
  • table S1. Electrochemical properties of electrode materials from various reports.
  • Calculations of AlCl4 diffusivity based on CV plot
  • Calculations of AlCl4 diffusivity based on EIS data
  • References (50, 51)

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