Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Archaeological human settlements and quinoa storage structures
  • section S2. Rain-fed quinoa-fallow system in the Intersalar region
  • section S3. Climate variability in the Bolivian altiplano
  • fig. S1. Ceramics of the Intersalar style.
  • fig. S2. Calibrated age probabilistic histograms of radiocarbon data from different sites mentioned in the text.
  • fig. S3. Plans of four residential sites identified in the study area.
  • fig. S4. Sketches of the main types of granaries identified in the study area.
  • fig. S5. Percent distribution of archaeological croplands in the study area in relation topographical features.
  • fig. S6. Plowing a fallow field during the austral summer will refill the soil water reserve for the next crop (Charali community, March 2011) (Photo Credit: P.C., CONICET).
  • fig. S7. Anomalies in austral summer temperature (DJF, degrees Celsius) between 1000 and 1300 CE.
  • fig. S8. Examples of agricultural lithic instruments (chelas) found on croplands at Jirira Vinto (site 1, Fig. 1).
  • fig. S9. The 2-year quinoa crop/fallow cycle and soil moisture dynamics in the Intersalar region.
  • fig. S10. Desiccated quinoa seeds found in archaeological storage structures within a cave at Jirira Vinto (site 1, Fig. 1).
  • table S1. Site description.
  • table S2. Calibrated radiocarbon dates of archaeological samples from sites in the Intersalar region.
  • table S3. Quinoa storage capacity of archaeological granaries in the Intersalar area.
  • table S4. Last millennium simulations considered from the PMIP3 data set.
  • References (88–113)

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