Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Fabrication and characterization of graphene supercapacitors
  • section S2. Microwave performance of active metadevices in near-field
  • section S3. Electromagnetic modeling and simulation of active metadevices
  • section S4. Imaging near-field extinction pattern of a square SRR
  • section S5. Electrically reconfigurable, spatially varying digital metamaterials
  • section S6. Frequency-tunable active metadevices
  • section S7. Performance of active metadevices in far field
  • section S8. Microwave performance of various metadevices in near-field
  • fig. S1. Image of growth, transfer, and etching processes.
  • fig. S2. Characterization of single-layer graphene.
  • fig. S3. Large-area graphene supercapacitor and its characterization.
  • fig. S4. Fabrication of large-area SRR structures.
  • fig. S5. Near-field microwave measurement setup.
  • fig. S6. Modulation of resonance amplitude in percent scale.
  • fig. S7. Modulation of resonance amplitude in decibel scale.
  • fig. S8. Detailed analysis for electrical switching of square SRRs.
  • fig. S9. Time response of the metadevices.
  • fig. S10. Conductivity of graphene.
  • fig. S11. Simulating performance of metadevices working in microwave.
  • fig. S12. Simulated transmission spectrum of active metadevices working in microwave.
  • fig. S13. Dependence of the resonance amplitude modulation to the period of SRRs in arrays of them in microwave.
  • fig. S14. Simulating performance of metadevices working in terahertz.
  • fig. S15. Simulating performance of metadevices working in far IR.
  • fig. S16. Simulating performance of metadevices working in mid IR.
  • fig. S17. Simulating performance of metadevices working in near IR.
  • fig. S18. Simulating performance of metadevices working in visible.
  • fig. S19. Simulating performance of metadevices in near IR using Au metal with its frequency-dependent n-k constants.
  • fig. S20. Simulating performance of metadevices in visible using Au metal with its frequency-dependent n-k constants.
  • fig. S21. Dependence of optimum coupling distance to resonance wavelength ratio (d1opt.r) on λr.
  • fig. S22. Device structure and experimental setup used for imaging near-field extinction pattern of SRRs.
  • fig. S23. Variation of extinction pattern with coupling distance d1 at 0 V.
  • fig. S24. Variation of extinction pattern with bias voltage at d1 = 3 mm.
  • fig. S25. Variation of extinction pattern with bias voltage at d1 = 3.5 mm.
  • fig. S26. Device structure of large-area, pixelated, reconfigurable metadevices.
  • fig. S27. Transmission (S21) patterns of pixelated, reconfigurable metadevices obtained by passive matrix addressing.
  • fig. S28. Real part of patterned dielectric constant on a large-area metadevice.
  • fig. S29. Imaginary part of patterned dielectric constant on a large-area metadevice.
  • fig. S30. Voltage response of transmission (S21) and retrieved dielectric constants in pixelated metadevices.
  • fig. S31. SRR arrays coupled to LR arrays.
  • fig. S32. Finding optimum d1 to achieve maximum shift in resonance frequency of SRRs at d2 = 3.5 mm.
  • fig. S33. Transmission spectrums showing the shift in resonance frequency of SRR arrays while damping the resonance amplitude of LRs.
  • fig. S34. Coupling two identical SRR arrays.
  • fig. S35. Tuning resonance frequency of SRR arrays coupled to its twin.
  • fig. S36. Active tuning of magnetic resonance.
  • fig. S37. Active tuning of electric resonance excited by a horizontally traveling electromagnetic waves on SRR arrays by graphene supercapacitor.
  • fig. S38. Electrically switchable metadevices made of a dense SRR arrays measured in far field.
  • fig. S39. Switching transmission amplitude and phase of various type metamaterials coupled to graphene supercapacitors by sweeping bias voltage from 0 to −1.5 V in near-field.
  • fig. S40. Switching transmission amplitude and phase of various type metamaterials coupled to graphene supercapacitors by sweeping bias voltage from 0 to −1.5 V measured in near-field.
  • fig. S41. Schematic drawings of metamaterials fabricated throughout this work with their dimensions.

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