Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Validation of the physical key
  • Excitation-selected imaging
  • The chosen physical key
  • Reading
  • Digitization
  • Encoding capacity
  • Authentication
  • Data management
  • fig. S1. Cartoon of the optical setup.
  • fig. S2. Absorption spectra.
  • fig. S3. Emission spectra measured with a confocal microscope and a CCD-based spectrometer.
  • fig. S4. Detailed emission spectra of Dy3+-doped zeolites.
  • fig. S5. Spectrally resolved excitation-selected images measured with CCD for Dy3+-doped zeolite.
  • fig. S6. Spectrally resolved excitation-selected images measured with CCD for Eu3+-doped zeolite.
  • fig. S7. Spectrally resolved excitation-selected images measured with CCD for Tb3+-doped zeolite.
  • fig. S8. CCD images of a mixture of Dy3+-, Eu3+-, and Tb3+-doped zeolites.
  • fig. S9. Confocal luminescence images of a mixture of Eu3+-, TB3+-, and Dy3+-doped zeolites using a CCD detector.
  • fig. S10. Transmission electron microscopy image of Tb3+-doped zeolite.
  • fig. S11. Confocal luminescence images of a mixture of Eu3+-, TB3+-, and Dy3+-doped zeolites using an APD detector.
  • fig. S12. Emission spectra measured with a confocal microscope and a CCD-based spectrometer (using SP3 filter in the emission path).
  • fig. S13. Emission spectra in logarithmic scale (same data as in fig. S12), measured with a confocal microscope and a CCD-based spectrometer (using SP3 filter in the emission path).
  • fig. S14. Cross-talk characterization.
  • fig. S15. Detailed explanation of the digitization process with key M3Z2A as example.
  • fig. S16. Confocal luminescence images of a mixture of Eu3+-, Tb3+-, and Dy3+-doped zeolites.
  • fig. S17. Confocal luminescence images of a mixture of Eu3+-, Tb3+-, and Dy3+-doped zeolites.
  • fig. S18. Confocal luminescence images of a mixture of Eu3+- and Tb3+-doped zeolites.
  • fig. S19. Confocal luminescence images of a mixture of Eu3+- and Tb3+-doped zeolites.
  • fig. S20. RGB image of zeolites doped with EU3+, TB3+, Dy3+, and nothing.
  • fig. S21. RGB images of co-stained zeolites.
  • fig. S22. The influence of multicolor, taggant size, image resolution, and taggant density on encoding capacity.
  • fig. S23. Illustration of model keys (12- × 12-pixel big squares) for different variables when changing different variables.
  • fig. S24. Defining an acceptance threshold from criteria 1 (checking all the pixels).
  • fig. S25. Criteria 2 analysis.
  • fig. S26. Authentication protocol using verification according to criteria 1 and criteria 2.
  • fig. S27. Demonstration on how the verification criteria 2 works.
  • fig. S28. Performance of the reader according to criteria 2.
  • fig. S29. Verification figures from key M3Z2A according to criteria 2.
  • fig. S30. Epi-illumination bright-field images of anticounterfeiting tags.
  • fig. S31. Photostability of Eu@LTA and Tb@LTA compared to fluorescein.
  • table S1. Matrix of binary combinations of Eu3+, Tb3+, and Dy3+ for zeolite loading.
  • table S2. Cross-talk from the spectra in fig. S12 without background subtraction.
  • table S3. Cross-talk from the spectra in fig. S12 with background subtraction.
  • table S4. Cross-talk matrix derived from total intensities of images in fig. S14 without background subtraction.
  • table S5. Cross-talk matrix derived from total intensities of images in fig. S14 with background subtraction.
  • table S6. Description of two possible reader configurations used to digitize the physical keys.
  • table S7. Encoding capacity of all the measured keys and of ideal keys with the same physical zeolite size, same scan resolution, higher scan size, and nominal zeolite density.
  • table S8. Probability of a random key code guessing any database code when using criteria 1.
  • table S9. Criteria 1 and 2 performance with sparsely populated keys.
  • table S10. Summary of the performance of authenticity of criteria 1 and 2 in fig. S26.
  • table S11. Performance of the reader assessed with match criteria 2.
  • table S12. Strength of the key upon variation of digitization parameters.
  • table S13. File sizes of two different types of images as an example of typical file size.

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