Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. Illustration of rechargeable aqueous ZBs using quinone electrodes.
  • fig. S2. Electrochemical properties of other quinone compounds.
  • fig. S3. LUMO energy and average discharge potential of different quinone compounds.
  • fig. S4. CV curves of Zn-C4Q battery at 0.5 mV s−1 for 100 cycles.
  • fig. S5. CV curves of other quinone compounds.
  • fig. S6. The uptake of the fourth Zn ion in the molecular structure of C4Q.
  • fig. S7. Discharge and charge curves of Zn-C4Q battery at 5 mA g−1.
  • fig. S8. Raman characterizations of Zn-C4Q batteries.
  • fig. S9. Ex situ XRD characterizations of Zn-C4Q batteries.
  • fig. S10. TEM characterization of C4Q electrode after discharge.
  • fig. S11. TEM characterization of C4Q electrode after charge.
  • fig. S12. Composition of Nafion.
  • fig. S13. SEM images of the prepared C4Q cathode on titanium foil.
  • fig. S14. Capacity retention and zinc utilization using different loading masses of C4Q.
  • fig. S15. Electrochemical performance of Zn-C4Q batteries in organic electrolyte.
  • fig. S16. Digital photos of the Zn anode, separator (filter paper or Nafion membrane), and C4Q cathode after cycling.
  • fig. S17. Characterization of the zinc anode after cycling using a filter paper separator.
  • fig. S18. SEM images of electrodes before and after cycles.
  • fig. S19. Rate performance of Zn-C4Q batteries with a Nafion separator.
  • fig. S20. Galvanostatic discharge and charge curves with selected cycles at 500 mA g−1 and corresponding energy efficiency.
  • fig. S21. Cycling performance of Zn-C4Q battery using C4Q cathode with a higher conductive carbon ratio (60 wt %).
  • fig. S22. Exhibition of pouch cells.
  • fig. S23. Digital photo and SEM image of the zinc anode after cycling in pouch cells.
  • fig. S24. Digital photos of designed batteries after in situ UV-vis spectrum collections.
  • fig. S25. Selected two-dimensional UV-vis spectra.
  • fig. S26. 1H NMR spectra of different electrolytes after cycling in batteries used for the UV-vis test.
  • fig. S27. Membrane potential tests.
  • fig. S28. EIS of Zn-C4Q batteries.
  • fig. S29. Electrochemical performance of aqueous Mg-C4Q batteries.
  • fig. S30. Structure of C4Q after uptake of three Mg ions.
  • table S1. Maximum specific capacity and lowest discharge/charge gap of electrodes coupled with metal zinc in aqueous batteries.

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