Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Piezoelectric transducer design using the KLM model
  • section S2. SAF imaging and DMAS algorithm
  • fig. S1. Testing performance of a commercial rigid probe on curved surfaces.
  • fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the device fabrication process.
  • fig. S3. Ecoflex thickness as a function of spin coating speed on a glass slide.
  • fig. S4. Acoustic damping effects of silicone substrates.
  • fig. S5. The vibration mode comparison between PZT and 1-3 composites.
  • fig. S6. Pulse-echo response and bandwidth differences of transducers with and without the backing layer (KLM simulation).
  • fig. S7. Bottom electrode design.
  • fig. S8. Top electrode design.
  • fig. S9. Four-layer top electrode fabrication processes.
  • fig. S10. Optical images of Cu serpentine interconnections under different laser parameters.
  • fig. S11. Laser ablation resolution experiments.
  • fig. S12. Photographs of the device seamlessly laminated on different curved surfaces.
  • fig. S13. ACF cable bonding.
  • fig. S14. Simulation results from the KLM model.
  • fig. S15. Dielectric properties of the device.
  • fig. S16. The phase angle change during the fabrication process and after repetitive testing.
  • fig. S17. Experimental and simulation of a small array under biaxial tensile strain.
  • fig. S18. Electric impedances under different bending curvatures.
  • fig. S19. The real and imaginary parts of electrical impedance under different levels of bending and stretching.
  • fig. S20. Relative resistance changes of Cu serpentine under stretching.
  • fig. S21. Instruments for nondestructive evaluation.
  • fig. S22. Switch circuit of the entire testing system.
  • fig. S23. Reconstructed images based on simulation under flat, concave, and convex surfaces.
  • fig. S24. The pulse-echo signal and 2D image of the two defects.
  • fig. S25. Polarization conditions.
  • fig. S26. The matching circuit of the ultrasound testing system.
  • fig. S27. Ultrasound signal filtering.
  • fig. S28. Simplified schematics of a transducer element.
  • fig. S29. The electrical model of a transducer.
  • fig. S30. General diagram showing the transmission line model of a two-port system.
  • fig. S31. Schematics showing the basic concept of SAF.
  • fig. S32. Block diagrams for the imaging algorithms.
  • table S1. Parameters for the 1-3 composite, backing layer, and Ecoflex.
  • Reference (59)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Simulation of wave field under a planar surface.
  • movie S2 (.mp4 format). Simulation of wave field under a concave surface.
  • movie S3 (.mp4 format). Simulation of wave field under a convex surface.

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