Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Effects of isotropic volumetric expansion on liquid rise height
  • section S2. Correlation between hygroscopic strain and pore coalescence
  • section S3. Recovery of microporous structure of cellulose sponges
  • section S4. The volume fraction of aqueous liquid in a cellulose sheet
  • section S5. Effects of water concentration on hygroscopic strain
  • section S6. Mechanical properties of cellulose sponges
  • section S7. Capillary rise in pre-swollen sponges
  • section S8. Scaling laws of water rise within bread made from starch
  • fig. S1. The measurement data of the cellulose sponge structure.
  • fig. S2. Macroscopic experiments for pore coalescence.
  • fig. S3. Numerical analysis of porous sheet deformation.
  • fig. S4. Moisture flux into cellulose sheet in ESEM chamber.
  • fig. S5. Microporous structure of cellulose sponges after cycles of wetting and drying with water.
  • fig. S6. Analysis of the cellulose sheets.
  • fig. S7. Hygroscopic strain of saturated sponge for different water contents in aqueous glycerin and ethylene glycol.
  • fig. S8. Shear modulus of dry and wet cellulose sponge.
  • fig. S9. Capillary rise height of water versus time in an initially dry sponge (black) and pre-swollen sponge (red).
  • fig. S10. Capillary rise in porous bread.
  • table S1. List of liquid properties and symbols.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2
  • References (36–38)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mov format). Wicking and swelling in the cellulose sponge.
  • movie S2 (.mov format). The merging of micropores in the cellulose sheets.

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