Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Optimization of vegetation physiology–related parameters
  • section S2. Model evaluation
  • section S3. Reconstructed map of the forest cover fraction and attribution of the greening
  • section S4. Relationship between soil moisture and other water cycle fluxes
  • fig. S1. Schematic diagram of the LMDZOR coupled model, zoomed over China.
  • fig. S2. The spatial patterns of climatological precipitation, ET, and soil moisture.
  • fig. S3. Seasonal distributions of climatological precipitation, ET, and soil moisture.
  • fig. S4. Spatial patterns of the climatological precipitation, overlaid by the composited 850-hPa winds at the annual time scale and during summer.
  • fig. S5. Evaluation of the EASM and changes in EASM caused by vegetation dynamics.
  • fig. S6. Spatial extent of the four different climate regions with the main changes in forest cover in China.
  • fig. S7. Temporal change in anomalies in annual hydrological variables from 1982 to 2011 over different climate regions.
  • fig. S8. Linear trend of the differences in monthly LAI, ET, precipitation, total runoff, and total soil moisture between the experiment (SCE) and control (CTL) over different climate regions.
  • fig. S9. Linear trend of the differences in monthly roughness, surface shortwave albedo, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and CAPE between the experiment (SCE) and control (CTL) over different climate regions.
  • fig. S10. The trend in mechanism-related variables affected by vegetation (experiment − control: SCE − CTL) from June to August.
  • fig. S11. Linear trend in annual precipitation (Pre) derived from observation-based data sets and our model simulations (that is, SCE and CTL) from 1982 to 2011.
  • table S1. Changes in the LAI, forest cover fraction (fforest, %), and LAI over forest (LAIforest) and nonforest (LAInonforest) regions between 1982 and 2011 (that is, 2011 minus 1982) over different climate regions in China and in the country as a whole.
  • table S2. A list of interannual trend (trend, ±1 SE), correlation coefficient (R), relative bias (bias, %) computed from observed and simulated ET, precipitation (Pre), and relative soil moisture (SM) at the country and regional scales.
  • table S3. Comparisons of trend (units: mm year−2) in ET and WY (precipitation − ET) between the Liu et al. (17) offline model and our coupled simulations during the time period 2000–2011.
  • table S4. Trends in the soil moisture of drainage basins within North China from 1979 to 2010, derived from the supporting information in the study of Chen et al. (44).

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