Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Initial formation of line defects after exposure to VHF for short time and formation of corrugations after exposure to VHF for a long time.
  • fig. S2. SiO2 without graphene coverage after exposure to VHF.
  • fig. S3. Graphene placed on a 1.4-μm-thick SiO2 layer and on the native SiO2 layer of a Si substrate after exposure to VHF.
  • fig. S4. Sheet resistance of graphene placed on SiO2 layers of different thicknesses after exposure to VHF.
  • fig. S5. SEM images of partially isolated single grains of CVD graphene with successively increasing magnification after exposure to VHF.
  • fig. S6. SEM images of double-layer graphene placed on a SiO2 surface after exposure to VHF.
  • fig. S7. SEM images of graphene placed on a SiO2 surface after exposure to 5% liquid HF.
  • table S1. Comparison of characterization methods of graphene grain boundaries in CVD graphene.
  • References (47–50)

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