Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • fig. S1. Induction of putrescine production by coculture of E. coli and En. faecalis.
  • fig. S2. Effects of extracellular pH and glucose concentration on bacterial metabolism in monocultures of En. faecalis and E. coli.
  • fig. S3. Viable bacterial counts and change of extracellular pH in cocultures of putrescine-deficient E. coli (SK930), wild-type En. faecalis (V583), and each Bifidobacterium sp.
  • fig. S4. Viable bacterial counts in feces of gnotobiotic mice.
  • fig. S5. Extracellular putrescine concentration and total viable bacterial counts in human feces incubated at different pH values (n = 5).
  • fig. S6. Effect of pH on extracellular agmatine concentration in monocultures of E. coli, Ci. youngae, and F. varium.
  • fig. S7. Symbiont-symbiont co-occurrence networks of key genes in the putrescine production pathway using previously described human microbiome data from U.S. metropolitan areas.
  • fig. S8. Symbiont-symbiont co-occurrence network patterns of key genes in the putrescine production pathway using previously described human microbiome data from Venezuela.
  • fig. S9. Symbiont-symbiont co-occurrence network patterns of key genes in the putrescine production pathway using previously described human microbiome data from Malawi.
  • fig. S10. Mechanistic model of a novel pathway for putrescine production from arginine through agmatine via the collaboration of three different bacterial species.
  • fig. S11. Outline of gnotobiotic mouse experiments.
  • table S1. List of species expressing homologs of the enzymes AdiA and AdiC, as determined by in silico analyses of 126 bacterial strains present in the human gut.
  • table S2. Detection of RNA sequences of AdiA, AdiC, AguA, and AguD by metatranscriptomic analysis of human feces.
  • table S3. List of bacteria used for screening of polyamine producing bacteria.
  • table S4. Strains, plasmids, and oligonucleotides used in this study.

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