Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

  • Section S1. Determination of NBZ and HFZ
  • Section S2. Development of the simulation code for CO2 sequestration in deep-sea sediments based on TOUGH+HYDRATE
  • Section S3. Code verification
  • Section S4. Description of the base case
  • Fig. S1. Illustration of the NBZ and HFZ with a geothermal gradient of 0.03 K/m, a salinity of 3.5%, and an ocean depth of approximately 3500 m.
  • Fig. S2. Possible phase changes in the model.
  • Fig. S3. Phase diagram of CO2 hydrate.
  • Fig. S4. Comparison of the analytical Buckley-Leverett solution and the results from the numerical simulation.
  • Fig. S5. Comparison of the analytical solution and the results from the numerical simulation in the 1D diffusion problem.
  • Fig. S6. Schematic of the 1D hydrate formation problem.
  • Fig. S7. Time evolution of pressure at x = 2 m.
  • Fig. S8. Time evolution of saturation of each phase obtained from the numerical simulation at x = 2 m.
  • Table S1. Phases and corresponding components in the model.
  • Table S2. PVSM for CO2 sequestration in deep-sea sediments.
  • Table S3. Hydrate-related properties.
  • Table S4. Physical properties of CO2 and seawater.
  • Table S5. Parameter setting for the Buckley-Leverett problem.
  • Table S6. Parameter setting for 1D diffusion problem.
  • Table S7. Parameter setting for 1D hydrate formation problem.
  • Table S8. Parameter setting of the base case.
  • Table S9. Thermal and hydraulic properties of the formations.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4
  • References ( 4664)

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  • Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:
    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Time evolution of spatial distribution of hydrate saturation in the base case.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Time evolution of spatial distribution of CO2 saturation in the base case.
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Time evolution of spatial distribution of mass fraction of CO2 in aqueous phase in the base case.
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Time evolution of spatial distribution of mass fraction of salt in aqueous phase in the base case.

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