Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. WVS and EVS
  • Section S2. Exploratory factor analysis
  • Section S3. Cultural factor loadings
  • Table S1. Participation in the different waves of the WVS and EVS.
  • Table S2. Participating countries in the WEVS.
  • Table S3. Questions common to all eight waves of the WVS and EVS.
  • Table S4. Secularization.
  • Table S5. Institutional confidence.
  • Table S6. Openness to intrinsic differences.
  • Table S7. Prosociality.
  • Table S8. Interest of politics.
  • Table S9. Wellbeing.
  • Table S10. Political engagement.
  • Table S11. Tolerance of prohibited behaviors.
  • Table S12. Openness to extrinsic differences.
  • Table S13. Independence of birth decade, t, versus WEVS phase, p, for secularization, St,p, and tolerance, Vt,p.
  • Table S14. Multilevel time-lagged linear models (see Materials and Methods) demonstrating that secularization predicts GDP and not vice versa (models 1 to 6); tolerance predicts GDP better than secularization (models 7 to 12) and education predicts future GDP, but not secularization (models 13 to 18).
  • Table S15. Time-lagged models, models 1 to 6 (see Materials and Methods), of S versus GDP for cohorts in their first decade or childhood (y = 0 decades, top row), teenage years (y = 1 decade, middle row), and twenties (y = 2 decades, bottom row).
  • Table S16. Multilevel time-lagged models, but with secularization (Salt) measured using the average of six indicators, which are subjectively associated with religiosity.
  • Table S17. Language categories assigned to WEVS countries, using Ethnologue data.
  • Fig. S1. The ordered factor loadings on WEVS survey questions, following EFA analysis with oblique rotation.

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