Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Theory of cavity electro-optics and its utility for microwave-to-optical conversion
  • Section S2. Device fabrication procedure
  • Section S3. Identifying phase-matching conditions for optical modes
  • Section S4. Influence of optical mode mixing on the vacuum coupling rate geo
  • Section S5. Microwave resonator design
  • Section S6. Measurement setup
  • Section S7. Device temperature calibration
  • Section S8. Efficiency calibration
  • Section S9. Added noise during conversion
  • Fig. S1. Calculated internal conversion efficiency.
  • Fig. S2. Scanning electron microscopy picture of the cross section of a superconducting cavity electro-optic device.
  • Fig. S3. Anti-crossing between TE and TM optical modes.
  • Fig. S4. Measured spectrum signature of mixing between TE and TM modes.
  • Fig. S5. Wavelength difference between adjacent resonances.
  • Fig. S6. Phase-matching wavelength and anti-crossing strength.
  • Fig. S7. Vacuum coupling rate with hybrid optical modes.
  • Fig. S8. Microwave resonator simulation.
  • Fig. S9. Experiment setup for microwave-to-optical photon conversion.
  • Fig. S10. Microwave resonator performance under different temperatures.
  • References (33, 34)

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