Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Geological settings
  • Section S2. Methods
  • Section S3. Results
  • Section S4. Method sensitivity and result accuracy
  • Fig. S1. Seasonality of the annual rainfall over South America.
  • Fig. S2. Locations of the different sites in the scope of this study.
  • Fig. S3. Sampled moraines in the Zongo Valley.
  • Fig. S4. Sampled moraines and sample locations on Cerro Azanaques.
  • Fig. S5. Sampled moraines and sample locations on Cerro Tambo.
  • Fig. S6. Sampled moraines and sample locations on Cerro Pikacho.
  • Fig. S7. Sampled moraines and sample locations on Nevado Sajama.
  • Fig. S8. Sampled moraines and sample locations on Cerro Luxar.
  • Fig. S9. Moraine studied in (59) on Cerro Uturuncu.
  • Fig. S10. The Tunupa glacial features studied in (17).
  • Fig. S11. Moraine studied in (61) at Laguna Aricoma.
  • Fig. S12. Calibration of the AAR value from the GLACIOCLIM-IRD glaciological data set (31, 32).
  • Fig. S13. Comparison between the PDD and the Condom et al. (33) methods to reproduce the ELA of six High Andes tropical glaciers (determined from toe-to-headwall altitude ratio and AAR).
  • Fig. S14. Location of the temperature and precipitation stations relative to the glacial valleys.
  • Fig. S15. Snow management workflow in the lake model.
  • Fig. S16. Workflow for precipitation field reconstruction during the Tauca highstand.
  • Fig. S17. Accuracy of the interpolated rainfall grid.
  • Fig. S18. Moraine age computations and identification of glacial extents coeval with the Tauca highstand at Cerro Azanaques, Cerro Tambo, Cerro Pikacho, and Cerro Uturuncu.
  • Fig. S19. Moraine age computation and identification of glacial extents coeval with the Tauca highstand for the sites of Cerro Luxar, Cerro Tunupa, Zongo Valley, Laguna Aricoma, and Nevado Sajama.
  • Fig. S20. Influence of the scaling scheme on the CRE age results.
  • Fig. S21. Comparison of the DJF temperature from station data (37) and the New et al. (36) data set.
  • Fig. S22. Sensitivity of the ELA-P-T relation.
  • Fig. S23. Glacier retreat at Cerro Tambo between the Lake Tauca highstand and the consecutive deglaciation.
  • Fig. S24. Lake Tauca highstand annual rainfall reconstruction using a spatially variable AAR compared to a fixed one.
  • Table S1. Present annual rainfall and mean temperature at the studied sites.
  • Table S2. 3He CRE age results on and Nevado Sajama, Cerro Pikacho, and Cerro Tunupa.
  • Table S3. 3He CRE age results on Cerro Luxar y Uturuncu.
  • Table S4. 10Be CRE age results on Cerro Tambo, Azanaques, at the Zongo Valley, and at Laguna Aricoma.
  • Table S5. Details of our new 10Be measurements on Cerro Tambo, Azanaques, and at the Zongo Valley.
  • Table S6. ELA of the glacial extents coeval with the Tauca highstand and associated paleoprecipitation results.
  • Table S7. Compilation of paleoclimatic studies related to SASM dynamics during HS1 (5, 1316, 4951) (107, 112114).
  • References (62114)

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