Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Model details
  • Section S2. Lattice-induced rotations
  • Section S3. Phase characterization
  • Section S4. Density-dependent propulsion
  • Section S5. Rim-core cluster model
  • Section S6. Size dependence
  • Section S7. Rim cell exposed edge
  • Section S8. Varying rim propulsion
  • Section S9. Solid body–like rotations
  • Section S10. Fluidity versus gradient
  • Section S11. Comparison of defects in experiment to full model
  • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of the chemical gradient force on the gray cell.
  • Fig. S2. Collective phase proportions of a cluster with monodisperse cell sizes.
  • Fig. S3. The propulsion of cells plotted against distance from the cluster center of mass.
  • Fig. S4. Effects of density-propulsion relationship on phases.
  • Fig. S5. Rim-core model phase proportions, with the rim cells confined to a circle.
  • Fig. S6. Rim-core model phase proportions, with the rim cells unconfined.
  • Fig. S7. Cluster size dependence of all phases.
  • Fig. S8. Schematic for rim cell definition.
  • Fig. S9. Collective phase proportions with varying rim propulsion.
  • Fig. S10. Rotational slip of outer rim around the inner core.
  • Fig. S11. Cluster fluidity as a function of chemical gradient.
  • Fig. S12. Defect dynamics and the transitions between phases for the full model.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4
  • Reference (40)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). Lattice-induced rotations for a crystalline cell cluster, which only occurs when the cells are of identical sizes and noise is sufficiently low.
  • Movie S2 (.mov format). A system with the same parameters as movie S1 but with polydisperse cell sizes with a spread of 10% of the average cell size.
  • Movie S3 (.mov format). Experimental cell cluster transitioning between the three phases of motion: running, rotating, and random.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Defect dynamics as a cluster transitions from the rotating phase to the running phase and back again.

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