Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Bats hover at two times higher Reynolds numbers than hummingbirds.
  • Fig. S2. Phylogenetic tree of the hummingbirds and bats in the study.
  • Fig. S3. Beyond the radial angle-of-attack distribution, kinematic parameters do not vary much across bat species.
  • Fig. S4. Hummingbirds generate substantially more vertical force during the upstroke than bats, and the nectar bats outperform the fruit bat.
  • Fig. S5. Morphological and kinematic parameters of the sampled species.
  • Fig. S6. Definition of the wing tip speed range associated with high lift production during the downstroke and upstroke.
  • Fig. S7. Aerodynamic force platform verification.
  • Table S1. Overview of wingbeats analyzed for force processing.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Force measurements and wingbeat segmentation.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Wing tracking and kinematic parameters.

Files in this Data Supplement: