Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. The optical photograph of the Janus nanoporous membrane
  • Section S2. Materials
  • Section S3. Measurements
  • Section S4. Synthesis of PAEK-HS
  • Section S5. Synthesis of PES-Py
  • Section S6. Characterization of PAEK-HS
  • Section S7. Characterization of PES-Py
  • Section S8. Inherent viscosity of the copolymers
  • Section S9. FT-IR spectra of PAEK-HS
  • Section S10. Porosity and pore size distribution
  • Section S11. Zeta potential of PAEK-HS
  • Section S12. Ion exchange capacity
  • Section S13. Model building
  • Section S14. Experimental setup
  • Section S15. The effect of the concentration gradients on short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage
  • Section S16. Ion selectivity of the membrane
  • Section S17. Energy conversion efficiency
  • Section S18. Fabrication of Janus heterogeneous membrane
  • Section S19. The performance of the membrane under neutral
  • Section S20. Tandem membrane-based power electronic devices
  • Section S21. Electrode calibration
  • Fig. S1. Digital photo of the large-scale Janus nanoporous membrane with an approximate thickness of 11 μm.
  • Fig. S2. 1H NMR spectra (500 MHz, CDCl3, room temperature) of monomer.
  • Fig. S3. 1H NMR spectra (500 MHz, DMSO-d6, room temperature) of PAEK-HS15.
  • Fig. S4. 1H NMR spectra (500 MHz, DMSO-d6, room temperature) of monomer.
  • Fig. S5. 1H NMR spectra (500 MHz, DMSO-d6, room temperature) of PES-Py.
  • Fig. S6. FT-IR spectra of PAEK-HP and PAEK-HS with different proportions of hydrophilic high concentration of sulfonated side chain (from top to bottom: 10, 15, and 20%, respectively).
  • Fig. S7. The histogram of pore size distribution with Gaussian fit.
  • Fig. S8. The zeta potential of membranes PAEK-HS10, PAEK-HS15, and PAEK-HS20.
  • Fig. S9. The ion exchange capacity values of the sulfonated membranes.
  • Fig. S10. Numerical simulation model based on PNP theory.
  • Fig. S11. Numerical simulation results of the effect of the surface charge density on the ICR ratio.
  • Fig. S12. Schematic of the electrochemical testing setup.
  • Fig. S13. Vopen and Ishort of HS10, HS15, and HS20 under various concentration gradients (KCl).
  • Fig. S14. Visual experiment for the selectivity.
  • Fig. S15. The output power and current density of PES-Py/HS20 under a series of external load resistance at pH 7.4.
  • Fig. S16. I-V curves of the 10 units’ device under river water (0.01 M NaCl) on the HS side and seawater (0.5 M NaCl) on the Py side.
  • Fig. S17. The equivalent circuit diagram of the testing system.
  • Scheme S1. Synthesis of PAEK-HS.
  • Scheme S2. Synthesis of PES-Py.
  • Table S1. Inherent viscosity of the copolymers.
  • Table S2. The conversion efficiency of the Janus membrane at different salinity gradients.
  • Table S3. V, ERedox, and EDiff of HS10, HS15, and HS20.
  • References (39, 40)

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