Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Mapped reforestation opportunity areas in the lower 48 states.
  • Fig. S2. Conceptual framework for improved forest management carbon accounting.
  • Fig. S3. MAC for carbon sequestration through forest management and aging, after Golub et al. (99).
  • Fig. S4. MAC for natural forest management after Latta et al. (98) and best-fit functions.
  • Fig. S5. MAC curves for improved plantations.
  • Fig. S6. Fire management analysis area.
  • Fig. S7. Regions used for reporting avoided forest conversion results.
  • Fig. S8. Forest conversion from 1986 to 2000.
  • Fig. S9. Potential carbon emissions from areas at high risk of forest conversion.
  • Fig. S10. Cities included in the urban reforestation analysis.
  • Fig. S11. Calibration of remote sensing data for forest cover estimation in urban areas.
  • Fig. S12. Avoided grassland conversion map.
  • Fig. S13. MAC curve for avoided grassland conversion.
  • Fig. S14. Nitrogen fertilizer use in the United States.
  • Fig. S15. Marginal abatement cost curve for reducing N fertilizer rate.
  • Fig. S16. Marginal abatement cost curve for applying variable rate technology fertilizer application.
  • Fig. S17. Grazing optimization map.
  • Fig. S18. Legumes in pastures map.
  • Fig. S19. Grassland restoration map.
  • Fig. S20. MAC curve for grassland restoration.
  • Fig. S21. Break-even prices for GHG abatement from rice production.
  • Fig. S22. MAC curve for salt marsh restoration.
  • Fig. S23. MAC of avoided GHG emissions from seagrass.
  • Table S1. Mitigation potential of NCS in 2025.
  • Table S2. Co-benefits of NCS.
  • Table S3. Literature MAC estimates for reforestation of agricultural lands.
  • Table S4. Literature estimates of reforestation costs used to estimate MAC of reforesting natural ecosystems.
  • Table S5. Estimated marginal abatement cost of fire management by major forest region.
  • Table S6. Forest disturbance rates by source.
  • Table S7. Mean annual forest hectares cleared per year from 1986 to 2000.
  • Table S8. Mean annual forest hectares cleared per year from 2001 to 2010.
  • Table S9. Mean annual forest hectares converted per year from 1986 to 2000.
  • Table S10. Proportion of areas cleared from 1986 to 2000 that had not regenerated to forest by 2010.
  • Table S11. Mean predisturbance dry biomass (kg m−2) in forest areas converted from 1986 to 2000.
  • Table S12. Mean predisturbance dry biomass (kg m−2) in forest areas converted from 2001 to 2010.
  • Table S13. Carbon emissions (Mg C year−1) from estimated forest conversion from 2001 to 2010.
  • Table S14. Albedo-adjusted carbon emissions equivalent (Mg Ce year−1) from estimated forest conversion from 2001 to 2010.
  • Table S15. Urban reforestation maximum potential annual net C sequestration in 2025.
  • Table S16. Uncertainty in urban reforestation average annual abatement (Tg CO2) by 2025 at a cost of USD 100 per Mg CO2.
  • Table S17. Profitability impacts of cover crops for selected crops.
  • Table S18. Marginal abatement costs of cover crops in the five primary crops.
  • Table S19. Maximum feasible N2O reduction for multiple nitrogen fertilizer practices.
  • Table S20. Results from the literature of the potential for reducing N fertilizer rate using within-field management.
  • Table S21. Current and projected GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing in the United States.
  • Table S22. Mitigation potential for grazing optimization and legumes in pasture NCS at different marginal abatement costs.
  • Table S23. Areas and carbon fluxes for Histosols in the conterminous United States.
  • Table S24. Peatland restoration mitigation calculations for climate zones within the United States.
  • Table S25. 95% CIs for Histosol calculations.
  • References (64398)

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