Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. The SEM-EDX mapping spectra on the top view of TAL.
  • Fig. S2. Rate performance of symmetric Al batteries using TAl and electrolyte of 1 m Al(CF3SO3)3 in water.
  • Fig. S3. Symmetric Al battery performance using Al or TAl coupled with organic electrolyte.
  • Fig. S4. The CV diagrams of Al-carbon fiber paper batteries.
  • Fig. S5. ATR-FTIR spectra of different electrolytes.
  • Fig. S6. Cross-sectional SEM image of TAl anode and corresponding EDX mapping after cycling in symmetric batteries.
  • Fig. S7. SEM characterizations of MnO2 nanorod.
  • Fig. S8. Galvanostatic discharge/charge curves of aqueous Al batteries using common Al anode.
  • Fig. S9. Electrochemical properties of Al-MnO2 batteries using TAl anode–, Al(CF3SO3)3-, and Al2(SO4)3-based aqueous electrolyte.
  • Fig. S10. GITT profiles of Al-MnO2 batteries.
  • Fig. S11. Cycling performance comparisons with or without Mn(CF3SO3)2 addition at current density of 200 mA/g.
  • Fig. S12. Galvanostatic discharge/charge curves at different current densities.
  • Fig. S13. XRD patterns of MnO2 electrodes under different situations.
  • Fig. S14. SEM images of MnO2 electrode.
  • Fig. S15. SEM images and selected positions for EDX studies.
  • Fig. S16. TEM images of MnO2 electrodes.
  • Fig. S17. XPS Mn2p3/2 spectra of pristine MnO2, fully discharged MnO2 cathode, and fully charged MnO2 cathode.
  • Table S1. EDX analysis of points in fig. S15.
  • References (3236)

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