Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Text
  • Fig. S1. Radiocarbon date for Dalheim individual B78 bone collagen.
  • Fig. S2. Distribution of dental calculus deposits on the dentition of individual B78.
  • Fig. S3. Comparison of blue particle appearance following HCl decalcification versus sonication in ultrapure water.
  • Fig. S4. Comparison of the effects of 0.05 M HCl, 0.1 M EDTA, and saliva on reference pigments.
  • Fig. S5. In situ distribution of blue particles in the dental calculus of B78 following sonication in ultrapure water.
  • Fig. S6. Blue particles recovered from lips and saliva during lapis lazuli grinding experiment.
  • Fig. S7. Elemental composition of additional reference pigments.
  • Table S1. Blue mineral pigments known in medieval Europe.
  • Table S2. Mean size of archaeological blue particles and reference pigments.
  • Table S3. Characterization of airborne dust on lips and in saliva during lapis lazuli grinding.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Archaeological blue particle size and count.
  • Data file S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Elemental composition data generated by SEM-EDS for archaeological blue particles and reference pigments.
  • Data file S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Raman spectral data for archaeological particles and reference lapis lazuli.

Files in this Data Supplement: