Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Comparison between the estimated C/N ratios of the BSE and measured C/N ratios of CI and other carbonaceous chondrites.
  • Fig. S2. Backscattered electron images of typical experimental products.
  • Fig. S3. Experimentally determined C solubility of the silicate melt at graphite saturation as a function of N content of the silicate melt.
  • Fig. S4. Raman spectra of the experimental silicate glasses from this study showing peaks associated with C-O-N-H volatile species.
  • Fig. S5. Comparison between experimentally measured C solubility in the alloy melt and the DCalloy/silicate and the predicted C solubility in the alloy melt and the DCalloy/silicate based on the parameterizations developed in this study.
  • Fig. S6. Application of the experimental and parameterized alloy/silicate partition coefficients to examine whether a single-stage core formation along with an early atmospheric loss can explain the present-day abundances and ratios of C, N, and S in the BSE.
  • Fig. S7. An example forward calculation to showcase the methodology used to determine the alloy/silicate ratio and the mass of the impactor for a successful inverse Monte Carlo simulation.
  • Fig. S8. Effect of varying bulk C/N ratios on the composition and the mass of the impactor, which could establish the C-N-S budget of the present-day BSE.
  • Fig. S9. Measured partition coefficients of S between the alloy and silicate melt as a function of S in the alloy melt.
  • Fig. S10. Results of inverse Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the composition and mass of the impactor with end-member DSalloy/silicate values.
  • Fig. S11. Results of inverse Monte Carlo simulations showing the effect of a variable DSalloy/silicate on the estimated bulk C content and the mass of the impactor.
  • Table S1. Comparison between the estimated C/N ratios of CI and other carbonaceous chondrites with that estimated for the BSE.
  • Table S2. Chemical compositions of the starting materials (in wt %).
  • Table S3. Summary of the experimental conditions, quench products, oxygen fugacity, and alloy-silicate partitioning coefficients of C, N, and S.
  • Table S4. Major element compositions (in wt %) of the alloy melts at 1 to 7 GPa.
  • Table S5. Major element compositions (in wt %) of the silicate melts at 1 to 7 GPa.
  • References (6873)

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