Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Table S1. Crystallinities and water contents in chemically cross-linked (Ch), freeze-thawed (FT), and dry-annealed PVA with annealing times of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 90 min.
  • Fig. S1. Measurement of the mass of freeze-thawed PVA during air-drying and the amount of residual water in the sample after air-drying.
  • Fig. S2. Experiment method for measuring fatigue threshold.
  • Fig. S3. Shakedown softening of three types of PVA hydrogels.
  • Fig. S4. Steady-state nominal stress versus stretch curves of PVA hydrogels with various crystallinities.
  • Fig. S5. Validation of high fatigue threshold with single-notch test.
  • Fig. S6. Validation of high fatigue threshold with pure-shear test.
  • Fig. S7. Mechanical characterization of PVA hydrogels with various crystallinities.
  • Fig. S8. Raman spectroscopy of freeze-thawed PVA and 90-min dry-annealed PVA.
  • Fig. S9. Electrical circuit and thermal mapping for programmable crystalline domains.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Tension of the pristine notched sample and the tip-reinforced sample.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Cyclic loading of the reinforced kirigami hydrogel sheet.

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