Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Supplementary Text
  • Fig. S1. PAN accumulation in tissues, organs, and body fluids of gregarious locusts.
  • Fig. S2. PAN dominates the six major volatile compounds released in headspace and dissolved in hemolymph of fourth-instar gregarious locusts
  • Fig. S3. Cytochrome (CYP) P450 gene transcriptomic analyses in whole body of gregarious and solitary locusts from first- to fifth-instar nymphs.
  • Fig. S4. Knockdown of three putative CYP genes by RNAi.
  • Fig. S5. Alignment of amino acid sequences of LmCYP305M2 (LM16181 shown in fig. S3B) with other five members in CYP305A subfamily of other insect species.
  • Fig. S6. CYP305M2 gene expression levels in different tissues and organs of fifth-instar gregarious locusts.
  • Fig. S7. The histological localization of CYP305M2 in tissue slides of head integument of dsGFP.
  • Fig. S8. Gregarious locusts are distasteful to the great tit (P. major).
  • Fig. S9. Major volatile components in the headspaces of hexane- and PAN-treated solitary locusts.
  • Fig. S10. Comparison of major volatile components in headspaces between dsGFP- and dsCYP305M2-injected locusts or between hexane-treated and PAN-treated dsCYP305M2-injected locusts.
  • Fig. S11. Perfuming beetle mealworm (T. molitor) with PAN increased the larval survivorship.
  • Fig. S12. Perfuming fourth-instar solitary locusts (S4) with BA or phenol did not affect the bird selection and predation.
  • Fig. S13. Extracted-ion GC-MS chromatograms of ion 26 of synthetic HCN and HCN in headspaces of locusts.
  • Fig. S14. HPLC chromatograms of BA in the head integuments of fourth-instar gregarious (G) and solitary (S) locusts.
  • Fig. S15. Confirmation of synthetic (E/Z)-PAOx with NMR and GC-MS.
  • Fig. S16. Confirmation of synthetic D8-(E/Z)-PAOx with GC-MS.
  • Fig. S17. HPLC chromatogram of D8-(E/Z)-PAOx.
  • Fig. S18. Measurement of the average volumes of headspace gas and locusts in a hermetically sealed glass vial (20 ml).
  • Fig. S19. Bird hungry and neophobic test before experiments.
  • Fig. S20. PAN load of locusts influences predation by the great tit.
  • Table S1. (E/Z)-PAOx in hexane extracts of tissues, organs, and body fluids of gregarious fourth-instar locusts.
  • Table S2. Primer sequences used for PCR amplification and the dsRNA synthesis of the putative genes in PAN biosynthetic pathway.
  • Table S3. MRM precursor and product ions and their collision energies (CE) of compounds.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S6

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). Video clip showing a bird preferring to attack a solitary fourth-instar locust as its first choice under light condition.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Video clip showing a bird preferring to attack a solitary fourth-instar locust (S4) as its first choice under dark condition in a topless birdcage.
  • Movie S3 (.mov format). Video clip demonstrating the effect of PAN supplementation on bird choice and predation on solitary locusts.
  • Movie S4 (.mov format). Video clip shows that great tits preferentially attacked and consumed a dsCYP305M2-injected gregarious locust (RNAi) over a dsGFP-injected gregarious locust (GFP).
  • Movie S5 (.mov format). Video clip showing the effect of PAN supplementation on bird choice and predation on dsCYP305M2-injected gregarious locust.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Video clip showing bird-attacking behaviors in an observation chamber.

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