Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Microscopic network and tensile mechanical properties of conjoined-network hydrogels.
  • Fig. S2. Biocompatibility of C4-G20-P20 conjoined-network hydrogel.
  • Fig. S3. Mechanical properties of C4-G20 composite hydrogel.
  • Fig. S4. Fracture energy of C-G-P conjoined-network hydrogels.
  • Fig. S5. The dissipative capacity and fatigue resistance behavior of C4-G20 composite hydrogel.
  • Fig. S6. Fatigue resistance and self-recovery behavior of C4-G20-P20 conjoined-network hydrogel under human body temperature conditions (37°C).
  • Fig. S7. Precipitate formation by chitosan with various phosphates and effect of soaking media pH on mechanical behavior of conjoined-network hydrogel.
  • Fig. S8. The effect of weight ratio of the first network to the second network on the mechanical properties and the swelling properties of C-G-P conjoined-network hydrogels.
  • Fig. S9. Compressive stress-strain curve of the gelatin hydrogel without sodium phytate at a similar solid content to those Cx-Gy-P20 conjoined-network hydrogels and tunable mechanics (compressive modulus and toughness) of C-G-P conjoined-network hydrogels.
  • Table S1. Quantitative comparison of the mechanical properties of C-G-P conjoined-network hydrogels with other natural polymer hydrogels, synthetic polymer hydrogels, and articular cartilage.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). This movie showing the stiff and tough C4-G20-P20 conjoined-network hydrogel can be used as a structural material to protect fragile objects (for example, an egg).
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). This movie was shot at the same time with movie S1 at a close range.

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