Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Scheme S1. Strategies for the synthesis of 2-alkylfurans.
  • Scheme S2. Reaction pathway for HAA of 2-alkylfuran with an aldehyde over acid catalyst.
  • Table S1. Properties of commercial solid acid catalysts.
  • Table S2. HAA reaction of different 2-alkylfurans with aldehydes over P-SiO2.
  • Table S3. Simulated kinematic viscosities and viscosity index at 40° and 100°C of C30-BPAOL lubricant base oils.
  • Table S4. Reaction specifications.
  • Table S5. Summary of capital and operating cost for combined production of p-xylene and lubricants.
  • Table S6. Summary of capital and operating cost.
  • Fig. S1. Catalysts screening for the synthesis of C30-FL1.
  • Fig. S2. Effect of catalyst (Aquivion PW98) amount on the yield of C30-FL1 at low and high conversions of reactants.
  • Fig. S3. Effect of reaction temperature on the production of C30-FL1.
  • Fig. S4. Arrhenius plot for HAA of 2-pentylfuran with lauraldehyde over Aquivion PW98.
  • Fig. S5. Time course of the HAA reaction over Aquivion PW98 catalyst.
  • Fig. S6. Recyclability of Aquivion PW98.
  • Fig. S7. Time course of the HAA reaction for C30-FL1 synthesis over the P-SiO2 catalyst.
  • Fig. S8. Recyclability of P-SiO2 for the synthesis of C30-FL1.
  • Fig. S9. Thermogravimetric profiles of P-SiO2 before and after reaction.
  • Fig. S10. Hydrogenation of C30-FL1 over pretreated Pd/C.
  • Fig. S11. TEM images of Pd/C before and after reaction.
  • Fig. S12. Recyclability of Ir-ReOx/SiO2 for the HDO of C30-FL1.
  • Fig. S13. TEM images of Ir-ReOx/SiO2 before reaction and after 5 cycles.
  • Fig. S14. Effect of chain length of 2-alkylfurans on the HAA reaction rate at <25% conversion.
  • Fig. S15. Effect of chain length of linear aldehydes on the formation rates of the HAA condensation products at <25% conversion.
  • Fig. S16. Effect of aldehyde branching on the formation rates of the HAA condensation products at <25% conversion.
  • Fig. S17. Gas chromatogram trace of C30-BPAOL1 and ExxonMobil PAO4.
  • Fig. S18. Flow diagram for the production of lubricants from furfural.
  • Fig. S19. Overview of cost and impact of raw materials on selling price of lubricants.
  • Fig. S20. Overview of cost and impact of raw materials on selling price of lubricants.
  • Fig. S21. Distribution of various costs by process.

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