Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. SEM image of quasi–three-dimensional artificial spin ice.
  • Fig. S2. Sample fabrication process.
  • Fig. S3. Magnetic structure factors as a function of introduced height offset.
  • Fig. S4. Illustrations of correlated and uncorrelated emergent magnetic monopoles.
  • Fig. S5. Illustration of possible low-energy configurations, whether being a dilute gas of magnetic charges or a magnetic monopole crystalline ground state.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2

Download PDF

Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.avi format). XMCD image sequence of a thermally activated extensively degenerate artificial square ice (height offset = 145 nm) recorded at 190 K.
  • Movie S2 (.avi format). Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics at 210 K (height offset = 145 nm).

Files in this Data Supplement: