Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Out-of-plane XRD diffraction pattern of the multilayer films
  • Section S2. Sample geometry and preparation process after film deposition
  • Section S3. Steady-state currents of multilayer films during in situ SSPM at 500°C
  • Section S4. Oxygen vacancy concentration calculation
  • Section S5. Oxygen vacancy concentrations of reference samples
  • Section S6. Temperature profile during cooling process
  • Section S7. In situ SSPM on YSZ/Nb:STO and STO/Nb:STO control samples
  • Fig. S1. θ-2θ XRD pattern of STO/YSZ/STO/YSZ multilayer films on Nb:STO (001) substrate.
  • Fig. S2. Cut/polish sequence, possible oxygen incorporation pathways, and scan geometry.
  • Fig. S3. Current measured on multilayer films under 0 to 3 V at 500°C.
  • Fig. S4. SSPM calibration data collected on different STO substrates.
  • Fig. S5. The temperature versus time (cooling) curve of the sample upon chamber backfill.
  • Fig. S6. SSPM, Nb:STO/YSZ film (10 mtorr), Nb:STO/STO film, Nb:STO/YSZ film (1 mtorr).
  • References (5154)

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