Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. C1s regions of XPS data for different polymeric monomer structures.
  • Fig. S2. The C:O ratios detected by XPS on the surface and in the bulk of PVA film.
  • Fig. S3. The contact angle of samples annealed for different times at room temperature.
  • Fig. S4. The contact angle of samples annealed for different times at −20°C.
  • Fig. S5. The surface morphology of PVA films detected by AFM.
  • Fig. S6. The surface morphology of PVA films detected by AFM in aqueous solution.
  • Fig. S7. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller results of PVA film annealed for 1, 30, and 60 min.
  • Fig. S8. Data of the changes of frequency (ΔF) and dissipation (ΔD) of PVA samples with annealing times detected by QCM-D.
  • Fig. S9. The average surface roughness (Ra) of PVA films with different annealing times.
  • Fig. S10. Thickness of PVA films with different annealing times.
  • Fig. S11. The degree of crystallinity of PVA ultrathin films.
  • Fig. S12. Freezing process of individual water droplet on PVA surfaces.
  • Fig. S13. AFM images of samples annealed for 0, 1, and 5 min before and after droplet freezing experiments.
  • Fig. S14. TH of water droplets on PVA samples with different cooling rate.
  • Fig. S15. TH of water droplets on PVA samples with different thicknesses and molecular weights.
  • Fig. S16. TH of water droplets on PVA samples with different degrees of hydrolysis.
  • Fig. S17. TH of water droplets on PVA before and after peeling off the top surface.
  • Fig. S18. The equilibrium water content of PVA with different thermal histories.
  • Fig. S19. FTIR investigation of water molecules inside the PVA films.
  • Fig. S20. DSC melting curve of pure water.
  • Fig. S21. Fitting results with a biexponential function.
  • Fig. S22. The plot of lnEt versus t based on the single exponential function.
  • Table S1. Data from DSC.
  • References (5255)

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