Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Phase diagrams of selected materials.
  • Fig. S2. Nucleation behaviors of sodium metal on selective metal foils.
  • Fig. S3. The nucleation curve of Na deposition on Sr and the phase diagram of Sr with Na.
  • Fig. S4. Morphologies of carbon fiber cloth (CFC)/Ba and CFC/Ba-Na.
  • Fig. S5. Galvanostatic cycling stability of CFC/Ba-Na.
  • Fig. S6. XRD patterns of prepared Mg-MOF-74.
  • Fig. S7. EDX mappings of cMOF74.
  • Fig. S8. Morphologies of the 3DHS.
  • Fig. S9. Morphologies of the 3DHS with and without Mg clusters after Na deposition.
  • Fig. S10. Galvanostatic cycling stability of the symmetric cell using the 3DHS without Mg clusters after Na deposition.
  • Fig. S11. EDX mappings of Na-3DHS.
  • Fig. S12. Characterizations of the 3DHS without Mg clusters.
  • Fig. S13. The influence of Na content on the cycling stability of the Na-3DHS electrode.
  • Fig. S14. Galvanostatic cycling stability of Na-ZIF8.
  • Fig. S15. Morphologies of Na-3DHS.
  • Fig. S16. Morphology characterizations of Na-3DHS electrode during one stripping/plating process.
  • Fig. S17. SEM images of Na-3DHS electrode after 100 cycles.
  • Fig. S18. Cycling stability of the cMOF74 cathode.
  • Fig. S19. Electrochemical performances of full cells with Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes.
  • Fig. S20. Cycling stability of the full cell with the FeS2 cathode.
  • Table S1. Electrical conductivities of commonly used carbon materials.
  • Legends for movie S1

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Infusion process of molten sodium.

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