Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Interaction between HCoV HR1 and HR2 regions in HCoV S proteins.
  • Fig. S2. Identity and similarity in spike protein sequences of SARS-CoV and SL-CoVs and the effect of EK1 on HCoV S protein–mediated cell fusion and virus-cell fusion, as well as the viral loads and histopathological changes in brains of HCoV-infected mice.
  • Fig. S3. In vivo safety of EK1 through intranasal administration.
  • Fig. S4. Structural comparison between the HR1-EK1 6-HB bundles and cognate HR1-HR2 6-HB bundles reveals that the EK1 peptide binds to the triple-helix HR1 core of different HCoVs in a similar manner to that of the native HR2 of the corresponding HCoV.
  • Fig. S5. The EK1 peptide forms 6-helical bundle structures with the HR1 motifs from OC43, HKU1, and NL63.
  • Fig. S6. Interactions between the HR1 and HR2 motifs of MERS and 229E.
  • Fig. S7. Key residues at critical positions endow EK1 and OC43-HR2 with pan-CoV activity.
  • Table S1. Inhibitory activity of peptides on multiple cell-cell fusion assays.
  • Table S2. Solubility and fusion inhibitory activities of different peptides.
  • Table S3. Data collection and structural refinement statistics.

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