Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. LCE precursor molecules and reaction mechanism for conventional 〈P2〉 > 0 LCEs.
  • Fig. S2. Schematic representation and micrograph of actual shell production.
  • Fig. S3. Schematic representation of actuation in radial shells of LCE with negative and positive order parameters.
  • Fig. S4. POM investigation of thermal response of pristine 〈P2〉 < 0 LCE shell with radial director.
  • Fig. S5. POM investigation of shell actuation.
  • Fig. S6. Fluorescence confocal microscopy images of a shell with an opening.
  • Fig. S7. Transmission POM investigation of thermal response of 〈P2〉 < 0 LCE shell fragment.
  • Fig. S8. Fluorescence confocal microscopy images of a shell fragment.
  • Fig. S9. LCE shells were modeled using ABAQUS finite element software.
  • Fig. S10. LCE shell fragment in the shape of twisted ribbon.
  • Fig. S11. Macroscopic disk with negative mesogen order parameter.
  • Legends for Movies S1 to S5

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). The video shows thermal actuation cycles (25° to 75°C) of a pristine shell UV cross-linked at 35°C, recorded with a first-order waveplate, crossed polarizers, and one polarizer in the light path, respectively.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Thermal actuation of a shell UV cross-linked at 35°C with a hole at the top, immersed in glycerol.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). The video shows actuation of a fragment cut from a shell UV cross-linked at 35°C.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Thermal actuation of a shell UV cross-linked at 60°C.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Complex modes of actuation observed by cutting a shell UV cross-linked at 35°C into different topological objects such as a cap shape, a self-closed ribbon, and a long spiral stripe shape.

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