Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Theoretical derivation of inverse snapping
  • Section S2. Energy transformation during the inverse snapping
  • Section S3. Characterization of dual-gradient rGO/PAMAEMA hydrogel sheet
  • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of the fabrication process of the GO/PDMAEMA hydrogel sheet.
  • Fig. S2. Characterization of dual-gradient rGO/PAMAEMA hydrogel sheet.
  • Fig. S3. Temperature-dependent swelling ratio and deforming kinetics.
  • Fig. S4. Shape transformations of hydrogel sheets with different patterns and initial shapes.
  • Fig. S5. Dependence of inverse snapping on TH.
  • Fig. S6. Demonstration of the multiresponsive feature.
  • Fig. S7. NIR irradiation–triggered shape transformation.
  • Fig. S8. aH, aL, ki-H, and ki-L for different hydrogel sheets.
  • Fig. S9. AFM characterization of GO.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S14

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of hydrogel sheet submerged from 60°C into 20°C water.
  • Movie S2 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of patterned hydrogel sheet.
  • Movie S3 (.avi format). Jumping and somersaulting motion.
  • Movie S4 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of hydrogel sheet submerged from 40°C into 20°C water.
  • Movie S5 (.avi format). Lifting processes of hydrogel actuator after energy storage at 60°C.
  • Movie S6 (.avi format). Lifting processes of hydrogel actuator after energy storage at 50°C.
  • Movie S7 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of hydrogel sheet submerged from 5 M NaCl into 20°C water.
  • Movie S8 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of hydrogel sheet submerged from 60°C into 0°C water.
  • Movie S9 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of hydrogel sheet submerged from 60°C into 35°C water.
  • Movie S10 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of hydrogel sheet submerged from 5 M NaCl into 0.1 M NaCl.
  • Movie S11 (.avi format). Local energy storage upon NIR irradiation.
  • Movie S12 (.avi format). Local energy release to induce triangle shape deformation.
  • Movie S13 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of dual-gradient bilayer PNIPAM hydrogel sheet.
  • Movie S14 (.avi format). Inverse snapping of single-gradient bilayer PNIPAM hydrogel sheet.

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