Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Luminescence bands shift and change intensity with laser energy.
  • Fig. S2. Timeline for occurrences of six white pigments in American works of art.
  • Fig. S3. REE levels in an ilmenite ore are similar to those in coprecipitated titanium white pigments and paints from works of art.
  • Table S1. Timeline of titanium oxide pigment manufacture in the United States.
  • Table S2. Raman shifts and luminescence wavelengths generated by different lasers.
  • Table S3. TITANOX titanium dioxide pigment compositions and species detected by Raman spectroscopy.
  • Table S4. Works of art displaying luminescence peaks indicative of coprecipitated pigments.
  • Table S5. Analysis of titanium white oil paints from NGA-MSRC.
  • Legend for data file S1
  • Reference (41)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Rare earth concentrations in samples of ilmenite ores, TITANOX pigments, and samples of paint as determined by ICP-MS.

Files in this Data Supplement: