Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Text
  • Fig. S1. Megaelectronvolt electron scattering intensity of unpumped samples.
  • Fig. S2. Lattice dynamics blow the damage threshold.
  • Fig. S3. The radial density function of pristine W inferred at time delay of −2 ps.
  • Table S1. Comparison of the measured and expected results of radial distances and coordination numbers for the first few nearest neighbor shells of bcc W lattice.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S6
  • References (4147)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). Temporal evolution of the megaelectronvolt-electron diffraction pattern for the pristine 30-nm-thick W as it underwent ultrafast laser-induced melting at absorbed pump fluence of 46 mJ/cm2.
  • Movie S2 (.mov format). The same as movie S1 but for W that is subject to 1-dpa radiation damage.
  • Movie S3 (.mov format). The same as movie S1 but for W that is subject to 10-dpa radiation damage.
  • Movie S4 (.mov format). 2T-MD simulated ultrafast laser-induced melting of pristine W.
  • Movie S5 (.mov format). The same as movie S4 but for the irradiated W with 5% of vacancy defects.
  • Movie S6 (.mov format). Close-up of a selected area in movie S5 showing the melting nucleation surrounding one big nanovoid.

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