Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. MLN and PP of GF mice are major sites for TH2-skewed immune response against food Ags.
  • Fig. S2. TFH cells in MLN and PP of GF mice are generated upon weaning onto NCD, and AF mice displayed impaired generation of GC B cells and IgE-producing cells.
  • Fig. S3. Levels of wheat gluten–specific IgE in GF Rag1−/− mice cotransferred with naïve B cells and indicated CD4+ T cell subsets.
  • Fig. S4. ICOS up-regulation on activated CD4+ T cells is independent on the presence of TFH cells and B cells.
  • Fig. S5. Expression levels of CD80, CD86, and ICOSL on MLN and PP DCs are comparable between GF and AF mice.
  • Fig. S6. B cells are required for the generation of food Ag–driven TFH cells in GALT.
  • Fig. S7. B cells promote terminal differentiation of food Ag–driven TFH cells by providing ICOS signaling and presenting cognate Ags.
  • Fig. S8. Levels of CD4+ T cell activation in MLN and PP are comparable between young and adult AF mice switched to NCD, but the latter shows increased levels of TH2 cells.
  • Fig. S9. High serum IgE levels in adult GF mice are sustained by radioresistant long-lived IgE-producing cells in MLN and BM.
  • Fig. S10. ICOS expression on activated CD4+ T cells and CD40 expression on DCs in MLN and PP in SPF mice are both comparable with those in GF mice.

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