Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Distribution of the ED of the frugivore bird species in the gradient of defaunation across the fragments of the Atlantic Forest.
  • Fig. S2. Distribution of the ED of the bird-dispersed plant species in the gradient of defaunation across the fragments of the Atlantic Forest.
  • Fig. S3. Correlation between the ED and the traits of the species involved in seed dispersal interactions in the Atlantic Forest.
  • Fig. S4. Defaunation leads to a significant impoverishment of the cumulative EDi performed by bird seed dispersal across forest fragments.
  • Fig. S5. EDi promoted by bird seed dispersal decreases sharply along a gradient of defaunation.
  • Fig. S6. Defaunation leads to an impoverishment of seed dispersal interactions and their associated asymmetric relationships of EDi.
  • Table S1. Description of the dataset used in this study.
  • Table S2. Traits of the bird species recorded in the studied communities of the Atlantic Forest.
  • Table S3. Traits of the plant species recorded in the studied communities of the Atlantic Forest.
  • Table S4. The bird–seed dispersal interactions recorded in the studied sites of the Atlantic Forest, followed by their EDi and correspondent asymmetry.
  • References (5276)

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